Whither the Revolution? Framing Political Animosities between Sexual Minorities and Churches in Cuba's New Constitution

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No liberal state by the standards of the West’s capitalist democracies, Cuba provides its citizens with qualified rights of expression, assembly, and religious exercise. These rights are qualified—from a liberal perspective— because they remain subject to the ongoing political interpretation of the Cuban Revolution (“Revolution”), a 1959 coup d’ état that has morphed into a touchstone for socialist law on the island. In 2018, Cuba began a constitutional reform, the first since the adoption of the 1976 Constitution. The constitutional reform considered whether to introduce more market institutions into a command economy, how to promote self-employment, how to recognize modified forms of private property, and how to improve the island’s complex currency system. The reform also considered noneconomic issues about the role of civil society, fundamental rights, and political participation